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2013至2018年瓦房店市手足口病流行特征分析
作者:马牧原 
单位:瓦房店市疾病预防控制中心 流行病科, 辽宁 瓦房店 116300
关键词:手足口病 流行病学特征 肠道病毒 瓦房店 
分类号:R183.1
出版年·卷·期(页码):2020·48·第十二期(1545-1550)
摘要:

目的: 分析2013至2018年瓦房店市手足口病流行病学特征,探讨疫情变化规律,为手足口病防控提供科学依据。方法: 数据来源于中国疾病预防控制信息系统,采用描述流行病学方法对2013至2018年瓦房店市手足口病流行病学特征及病原检测资料进行统计分析。结果: 2013至2018年瓦房店市共报告手足口病7 561例,年均发病率为134.47/105,各年度发病率差异有统计学意义(χ2=2 257.17,P<0.001)。发病季节性明显,发病高峰集中在6~8月。手足口病年均发病率居前5位的是复州城镇、岗店办事处、文兰办事处、老虎屯镇、共济办事处。城区发病率高于农村,男性发病率高于女性,病例以5岁以下儿童为主,发病职业构成主要为散居儿童、幼托儿童和学生。病原学方面,引起手足口病的不同型别肠道病毒交替流行。送检的415例样本中,肠道病毒核酸检测阳性检出率为90.36%(375/415),其中其他肠道病毒阳性占51.20%,柯萨齐病毒A16型阳性占28.80%,肠道病毒71型(EV71)的占20.00%。70例有实验室检测结果的重症病人中,EV71阳性的有35例,占50%。结论: 瓦房店市手足口病疫情呈现每隔2年高发的特征,有明显的季节性、地区性和人群特征。手足口病防控应将夏季作为重点时段,将学龄前儿童作为重点人群,将城区作为重点地区,提高EV71疫苗接种的宣传,预防重症病例的发生。

Objective: The study analyzed the epidemiological characteristics and epidemic pattern of hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Wafangdian from 2013 to 2018, in order to provide scientific basis for the prevention and control of HFMD.Methods: HFMD surveillance and report were done using the National Infectious Disease Surveillance System. Descriptive epidemiological method was used for statistical analysis of the data on epidemiological characteristics and pathogen detection results of HFMD cases reported from 2013 to 2018 in Wafangdian. Results: A total of 7 561 HFMD cases were reported in Wafangdian from 2013 to 2018, with an annual average incidence of 134.47/105, there was statistic difference among the incidence of different years.(χ2=2 257.17, P<0.001). There was an obvious seasonality. The peak appeared from June to August. The average annual incidence of HFMD in Fuzhoucheng district, Gangdian district, Wenlan district, Laohutun district, and Gongji district ranked top 5 in Wafangdian. The average incidence rate was higher in city than that in country. The incidence in boys was higher than that in girls. The most cases were in children aged below five years old. The occupational components of the disease were mainly scattered children, kindergarten children and students. The etiology distribution showed alternating epidemics of different types of enteroviruses causing HFMD. The number of HFMD confirmed cases was 375, accounted for 90.36% of the 415 cases, among which other positive enterovirus accounted for 51.2%, coxsackie virus A16 was 28.8%, and enterovirus 71(EV71) was 20.00% Among 70 sever cases with laboratory test results, EV71 positive patients was 35 cases accounted for 50%.Conclusion: The outbreak of HFMD in Wafangdian city is characterized by high incidence every 2 years, showing obvious regional, seasonal and population distribution characteristics. It is necessary to strengthen the prevention and control of HFMD in summer, in young children and in urban areas. EV71 vaccination campaign should also be carried out to prevent severe cases of HFMD.

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